June 23, 1865: Confederate General Stand Watie Surrenders


Confederate General, and Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, Stand Watie surrendered on June 23, 1865, the last Confederate general to surrender his brigade.  He and his men had fought throughout the Indian Territory and the Trans-Mississippi theater, participating in more battles than any other Confederate unit in the theater, and waging a guerrilla war against Union supply lines and outposts.  Here are the terms of the articles of surrender: (more…)

Published in: on June 23, 2022 at 5:30 am  Comments Off on June 23, 1865: Confederate General Stand Watie Surrenders  
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February 7, 1861: The Choctaw Nation Stands With the Confederacy

On February 7, 1861, the Choctaw nation in the Indian Territory, present day Oklahoma, announced its adherence to the Confederacy.  This marks the beginning of the Civil War in the Indian Territory, a fascinating war within the Civil War, that receives scant treatment in most Civil War histories.  This is a pity.  The War in the Indian territory involved seven battles and innumerable skirmishes, and is full of vivid characters, shifting loyalties and endless drama.  The Resolution of the Choctaw Nation: (more…)

Published in: on February 7, 2019 at 5:30 am  Comments (2)  
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August 26, 1863: The Other Battle of Perryville

James G. Blunt



In addition to the famous battle of Perryville fought in Kentucky on October 8, 1862 there was another battle of Perryville fought on August 26, 1862 in the Indian Territory, the forgotten theater of the Civil War.

Following up on his victory at Honey Springs on July 17, 1863,  go here to read about it, Union Major General James G. Blunt was intent on cementing Union dominance of the Indian Territory.  Located 24 miles southwest of Fort Smith, Arkansas, Perryville, now known as Cameron, Oklahoma, was the major supply depot for Confederate forces in the Indian Territory. (more…)

Published in: on August 26, 2018 at 5:30 am  Comments Off on August 26, 1863: The Other Battle of Perryville  
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Battle of Honey Springs

The Civil War in the Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, is an untold story to most Americans.  Throughout the Civil War pro-Union and pro-Confederate Indian tribes, and factions within the tribes, struggled for control of this region.  The turning point in that conflict was the Battle of Honey Springs fought on July 17, 1863.  Most of the troops who fought in this engagement were Blacks or Indians, with White troops on both sides being in a distinct minority.

The orders of battle for both sides were as follows:


District of the Frontier – Major General James G. Blunt

  • 1st Brigade – Colonel William R. Judson
    • 2nd Indian Home Guard — Lieutenant Colonel Fred W. Schaurte
    • 1st Kansas Colored Infantry— Colonel James M. Williams(W), Lieutenant Colonel John Bowles
    • 6 Companies, 3rd Wisconsin Cavalry — Captain Edward R. Stevens
  • 2nd Brigade – Colonel William A. Phillips
    • 6 Companies, 2nd Colorado Infantry — Colonel Theodore H. Dodd
    • 1st Indian Home Guard — Colonel Stephen H. Wattles
    • Detachments of 6th Kansas Cavalry — Colonel William F. Campbell
  • Artillery
    • 2nd Kansas Light Artillery
    • 1st Section — Captain Edward Smith
    • 2nd Section — Lieutenant John P. Grassberger
    • 3rd Kansas Light Artillery — Captain Henry Hopkins


1st Brigade, Indian Troops – Brigadier General Douglas H. Cooper

  • Texas Brigade – Colonel Thomas C. Bass
    • 20th Texas Cavalry (Dismounted) — Colonel Thomas Coker Bass
    • 29th Texas Cavalry – Colonel Charles DeMorse (W)
    • 5th Texas Partisan Rangers— Colonel Leonidas M. Martin
  • Indian Brigade – Brigadier General Douglas Cooper
    • 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles — Major Joseph F. Thompson
    • 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles — Lieutenant Colonel James M. Bell
    • 1st Choctaw—Chickasaw Mounted Rifles — Colonel Tandy Walker
    • 1st Creek — Colonel Daniel N. McIntosh
    • 2nd Creek— Colonel Chilly McIntosh
  • Artillery & Cavalry
    • Lee’s Battery— Captain Roswell W. Lee
    • Scanland’s Squadron Texas Cavalry — Captain John Scanland
    • Gillett’s Squadron Texas Cavalry — Captain L. E. Gillett

The Union had around 3,000 men and the Confederates between 3,000-6,000. (more…)

Published in: on April 27, 2010 at 6:07 am  Comments (2)  
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