Marching Through Georgia

Something for the weekend.  Marching through Georgia with a montage of photos of Uncle Billy, as his troops called William Tecumseh Sherman.  (Southerners had a variety of other names for Sherman, many not printable on a family blog.)

This version is taken from Ken Burn’s Civil War and Jay Ungar below explains how the song was performed both as a celebratory March and a Lament to represent contrasting Northern and Southern views of Sherman’s March to the Sea.

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Published in: on September 12, 2010 at 5:30 am  Comments (3)  
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3 Comments

  1. Sherman — my hero! He certainly wins the palm for contribution to victory: deaths (on both sides) ratio.

    BUT, was he a war criminal? Or more accurately start a philosophy that is used to justify war crimes?

    In the recent discussions on Jimmy Akins’s blog about the morality of dropping the A-bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima (which I do NOT wish to restart here) commenters suggested that WTS began the process of weakening the concept of “civilian” or defining it to make civilians legitimate targets.

    Sherman’s goals were to destroy Southern morale and specifically civilian support for the rebellion — in effect declaring that regime-supporters were guilty rather than “innocent” civilians. His troops didn’t kill civilians but certainly left plenty starving in their wake.

    Subsequent wars seem to have adopted this approach; that the enemy’s morale and guilty civilians like workers in war industries are legitimate targets.

  2. People who make that accusation TC usually have a shocking lack of knowledge of military history. Nothing that Sherman and his army did on the March to the Sea was unusual for a military campaign before his time, except that mass killing of civilians was not involved.

    Here is Sherman’s Special Field Order 120:

    “Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, In the Field, Kingston, Georgia, November 9, 1864

    I. For the purpose of military operations, this army is divided into two wings viz.: The right wing, Major-General O. O. Howard commanding, composed of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps; the left wing, Major-General H. W. Slocum commanding, composed of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps.

    II. The habitual order of march will be, wherever practicable, by four roads, as nearly parallel as possible, and converging at points hereafter to be indicated in orders. The cavalry, Brigadier – General Kilpatrick commanding, will receive special orders from the commander-in-chief.

    III. There will be no general train of supplies, but each corps will have its ammunition-train and provision-train, distributed habitually as follows: Behind each regiment should follow one wagon and one ambulance; behind each brigade should follow a due proportion of ammunition – wagons, provision-wagons, and ambulances. In case of danger, each corps commander should change this order of march, by having his advance and rear brigades unencumbered by wheels. The separate columns will start habitually at 7 a.m., and make about fifteen miles per day, unless otherwise fixed in orders.

    IV. The army will forage liberally on the country during the march. To this end, each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient foraging party, under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route traveled, corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, vegetables, corn-meal, or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all times to keep in the wagons at least ten day’s provisions for the command and three days’ forage. Soldiers must not enter the dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass, but during a halt or a camp they may be permitted to gather turnips, potatoes, and other vegetables, and to drive in stock of their camp. To regular foraging parties must be instructed the gathering of provisions and forage at any distance from the road traveled.

    V. To army corps commanders alone is intrusted the power to destroy mills, houses, cotton-gins, &c., and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested no destruction of such property should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should order and enforce a devastation more or less relentless according to the measure of such hostility.

    VI. As for horses, mules, wagons, &c., belonging to the inhabitants, the cavalry and artillery may appropriate freely and without limit, discriminating, however, between the rich, who are usually hostile, and the poor or industrious, usually neutral or friendly. Foraging parties may also take mules or horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains, or to serve as pack-mules for the regiments or bridges. In all foraging, of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, and may, where the officer in command thinks proper, give written certificates of the facts, but no receipts, and they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable portion for their maintenance.

    VII. Negroes who are able-bodied and can be of service to the several columns may be taken along, but each army commander will bear in mind that the question of supplies is a very important one and that his first duty is to see to them who bear arms.

    – William T. Sherman, Military Division of the Mississippi Special Field Order 120, November 9, 1864″

    Southerners, understandably from their point of view, have viewed Sherman as the Devil Incarnate for generations. However, there was nothing unusual in regard to his orders in general military history, or in American military history. Considering this as a precursor of the Total War of the 20th century is attributable to the fact that in our time people tend to substitute hyperbole and passion for knowledge of what is under discussion.

  3. A good article regarding the myth of Sherman as some sort of precursor of Total War is linked below:

    http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/grimsley1/myth/myth.htm

    Myths like this are usually instigated for political ends. In regard to Southerners, Sherman as Devil helped support the myth of the Lost Cause and also helped lend legitimacy to the White “Redeemer” governments that took over after Reconstruction and turned blacks into fifth class citizens in the South for almost a century. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are resurrected on Catholic websites each August I think largely as part of contemporary political battles, but you are correct that this blog is not the forum to get into that. I have gone over that issue ad nausem in the thread linked below on The American Catholic:
    http://the-american-catholic.com/2010/08/14/victory-over-japan/


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